Category: Explained

Finite Fields

Finite fields are the mathematical concept underlying elliptic curves which are used heavily in cryptography. A finite field is a finite set of numbers and operations that satisfy 5 properties. Let us define a finite field of order p as follows: The set must meet these properties to be considered a finite field. Closed Property […]

What is the difference between MPP and AMP payment splitting?

Routing and pathfinding on the Lightning Network is a rapidly evolving area of research. The topology of the network allows for payments to be sent peer-to-peer over connected channels where liquidity can flow. In this article, we’ll cover the differences between Multi-part Payments (MPP) and Atomic Multi-part Payments (AMP). To understand the differences, let’s first […]

What’s the difference between a MAC and an HMAC?

A message authentication code (MAC) is produced from a message and a secret key by a MAC algorithm. The MAC algorithm is a one-way function. This means it’s impossible to decode the secret from the MAC. This also means that a MAC using the same message and a different secret will look completely different. Why are MACs […]

Why is it difficult to cancel a Bitcoin transaction?

Bitcoin offers the highest assurance of transaction finality of any asset known today. It is impossible to undo a transaction with multiple confirmations. However, it can take weeks or even months for a broadcast transaction to confirm if it is not sent with a competitive fee. A signed and broadcast transaction quickly replicates in the […]