Category: Explained

Finite Fields
Finite fields are the mathematical concept underlying elliptic curves which are used heavily in cryptography. A finite field is a finite set of numbers and operations that satisfy 5 properties. Let us define a finite field of order p as follows: The set must meet these properties to be considered a finite field. Closed Property…

What is the difference between MPP and AMP payment splitting?
Routing and pathfinding on the Lightning Network is a rapidly evolving area of research. The topology of the network allows for payments to be sent peertopeer over connected channels where liquidity can flow. In this article, we’ll cover the differences between Multipart Payments (MPP) and Atomic Multipart Payments (AMP). To understand the differences, let’s first…

What’s the difference between a MAC and an HMAC?
A message authentication code (MAC) is produced from a message and a secret key by a MAC algorithm. The MAC algorithm is a oneway function. This means it’s impossible to decode the secret from the MAC. This also means that a MAC using the same message and a different secret will look completely different. Why are MACs…

Why is it difficult to cancel a Bitcoin transaction?
Bitcoin offers the highest assurance of transaction finality of any asset known today. It is impossible to undo a transaction with multiple confirmations. However, it can take weeks or even months for a broadcast transaction to confirm if it is not sent with a competitive fee. A signed and broadcast transaction quickly replicates in the…